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古玩城2021精品推荐第二期:乾隆青花釉里红海水五龙纹梅瓶

2021-09-09 18:39:16 网络

中国制瓷跨越千年,但集原料、工艺、技法、烧造,至精至极之朝代,非清乾隆皇朝莫属。它是中国制瓷王国的颠峰时代。这一期的官窑瓷器以其丰富多彩的品种和制作著称于世,瓷艺精进,榷陶使者唐英殚心竭虑,集历代名窑之大成,括中外良器之精萃,藉以御窑厂之能工巧匠,以瓷为胎,敷设彩釉,铸就千古不遇之辉煌。其间既崇尚复古,亦勇于创新,所带来的技术突破与艺术新姿采均在中国艺术史上写下重要的一页。诚如《陶雅》所称:“至乾隆,则华缛极矣,精巧之致,几于鬼斧神工。”

Chinese porcelain has been made for thousands of years, but it is the Qianlong Dynasty of the Qing Dynasty that integrates raw materials, processes, techniques and firing. It is the peak of China's porcelain kingdom. The official kiln porcelain of this period is famous for its rich and colorful varieties and production. The porcelain art is advanced. Tang Ying, the messenger of pottery discussion, has devoted all his heart to collecting the achievements of famous kilns of previous dynasties, including the essence of good tools at home and abroad, so that the skilled craftsman of the imperial kiln, taking porcelain as the tire, lays colored glaze and casts an unprecedented brilliance. During this period, it not only advocates retro, but also has the courage to innovate. The technological breakthrough and new artistic style brought by it have written an important page in the history of Chinese art. As Tao Ya said: "to Qianlong, the Chinese red tape is extremely exquisite. It is almost uncanny."

 

釉里红,是指用铜的氧化物为着色剂配制的彩料,在坯体上(或先施以青白釉的坯胎土)描绘纹样,再盖一层青白釉,然后装匣入窑,经1250℃~1280℃的强还原焰气氛,使高价铜还原成低价铜,呈现娇妍而沉着的红色花纹。釉里红有单独装饰的,但大多数与青花相结合在一起进行装饰而称为“青花釉里红”。其特点既有青花的“幽靓雅到致,沉静安定”的特色,又增添了釉里红的浑厚壮丽,丰富了色彩效果,形成了高雅而又朴实的艺术风格。因此,青花釉里红瓷成为我国珍贵的品种之一。

Underglaze red refers to the color material prepared with copper oxide as colorant, depicting the pattern on the green body (or the green tire soil with green and white glaze first), then covering it with a layer of green and white glaze, and then putting it into the kiln. After a strong reducing flame atmosphere of 1250 ℃ ~ 1280 ℃, the high-priced copper is reduced to low-priced copper, showing a beautiful and calm red pattern. Underglaze red is decorated separately, but most of them are combined with blue and white for decoration, which is called "blue and white underglaze red". It has the characteristics of "quiet, beautiful, elegant, quiet and stable" of blue and white, and adds the richness and magnificence of underglaze red, enriches the color effect, and forms an elegant and simple artistic style. Therefore, blue and white underglaze red porcelain has become one of the precious varieties in China.

 

青花釉里红系创烧于六百三十多年前的元末,流行于明初。明清皆有烧造。青花釉里红画面,俨然是寓意深刻、最富民族特色的中国国画。它把国画与精美的瓷器相结合,其艺术价值显然大为提高。在富于变化而又优美的景德镇艺术瓷器造型上,在洁白的瓷胎表面,绘制精心设计的高雅国画,青红对比绚丽多姿,罩上玉质感很釉色美等四美于一器,再经过难于驾驭的火的艺术的洗礼。简直成了火中凤凰。这种巧夺天工的艺术珍品,在元代创制伊始,极为难得,只能作为帝王等贵族收藏欣赏,或作为国宝“赐赠”友邦。

The blue and white underglaze red system was created and burned in the late Yuan Dynasty more than 630 years ago and was popular in the early Ming Dynasty. It was fired in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The blue and white underglaze red picture seems to be a Chinese traditional painting with profound meaning and the most national characteristics. It combines traditional Chinese painting with exquisite porcelain, and its artistic value is obviously greatly improved. In the modeling of Jingdezhen artistic porcelain, which is rich in changes and beauty, carefully designed elegant traditional Chinese painting is drawn on the surface of the white porcelain body. The contrast between green and red is gorgeous. It is covered with jade, and the glaze color is beautiful. Then it is baptized by the art of fire, which is difficult to control. It's like a phoenix in the fire. At the beginning of its creation in the Yuan Dynasty, this exquisite art treasure was extremely rare. It can only be collected and appreciated by emperors and other nobles, or "given" to friends as a national treasure.

 

乾隆青花釉里红器以其青花的鲜艳,釉里红呈色的纯正而受世人所爱,且其烧造器型种类较多与遗留数量较多而使收藏者有更多机会来感受其制作的精美。常见器型有瓶、花觚、盆、盏托、坛、罐、鼻烟壶 、盘、攒盘、碗、笔筒、水盂等。青花色泽浓艳,釉里红呈色稳定,相对而言较为淡雅,但不如雍正时期釉里红呈色淡雅,红色中常见有绿色苔点,亦十分美丽。其釉里红呈色见有深浅不同的层次,深浓与浅淡相互照应,色调和谐统一,所绘花鸟和青叶红花更近于写意。除常见的白地青花釉里红外,乾隆青花釉里红器还见有豆青地青花釉里红、天青地青花釉里红、绿地青花釉里红、天蓝地青花釉里红、黄地青花釉里红、浅绿地青花釉里红等,充分表现出乾隆青花釉里红的品种丰富。无论是器型还是纹饰均较为丰富,以大瓶为多,或直接绘画,或开光装饰。纹饰有三友、松鹿、花果、龙纹、云蝠 、狮球、梅雀、三果、八仙以及题诗多见。

Qianlong blue and white underglaze red ware is loved by the world because of its bright blue and white and pure underglaze red color. Moreover, there are many types of fired ware and a large number of left over objects, so that collectors have more opportunities to feel its exquisite production. Common types of utensils include bottles, flower goblets, pots, lamp holders, jars, cans, snuff bottles, plates, storage plates, bowls, penholders, water bowls, etc. The blue and white color is rich and colorful, and the underglaze red is stable. It is relatively elegant, but it is not as elegant as the underglaze red in the Yongzheng period. Green moss spots are common in the red, which is also very beautiful. The underglaze red color shows different levels of depth. The depth and lightness take care of each other, and the tone is harmonious and unified. The painted flowers and birds, green leaves and red flowers are closer to freehand brushwork. In addition to the common white ground blue and white underglaze infrared, Qianlong blue and white underglaze red ware can also be seen in bean green ground blue and white underglaze red, sky green ground blue and white underglaze red, sky blue ground blue and white underglaze red, yellow ground blue and white underglaze red, light green ground blue and white underglaze red, which fully shows the rich variety of Qianlong blue and white underglaze red. Both types of utensils and patterns are rich, mostly large bottles, or direct painting or lighting decoration. There are three friends, pine deer, flowers and fruits, dragon pattern, cloud bat, lion ball, plum Finch, three fruits, eight immortals and poems.

 

此件乾隆青花釉里红海水五龙纹梅瓶,乾隆年的宫廷精品,其体态丰盈稳健,瓷坯洁白细腻,采用唐英首创的高岭土高配比的瓷土配方,加上工艺繁复的夯制,淘洗的过程,瓷胎更为紧密,从而使得瓷器物庞大而未有变形塌陷的优点,梅瓶通体施透明釉,纯净娇嫩,明亮透彻,瓶身以青花绘云纹,交叠悬停,气韵生动,在青花祥云纹的烘托下,五条以釉里红绘画的生龙腾然出现,龙首瞪目,冲发、长吻、利齿,龙身矫健盘旋,羽磷坚实繁密,指爪犀利,动感十足。瓶底再以青花绘海水纹,展示了苍龙出没于汹涌大海的场景,飞旋腾挪,气宇轩昂,一派皇家气息。青花与釉里红的相结合,不但工艺更为繁复,烧造也更为困难,但不一为报,只求装饰效果的精良,“不惜工本”可谓乾隆制瓷宗旨,在这件瓷器上充分展现在人们面前,无愧“历代美瓷推乾窑”的美誉。

This plum vase with blue and white glaze and red sea water five dragon pattern in Qianlong Dynasty is a palace boutique in Qianlong year. It is plump and stable, and the porcelain blank is white and delicate. It adopts the porcelain clay formula with high proportion of kaolin initiated by Tang Ying, and the porcelain body is more compact with the complicated process of tamping and washing, so that the porcelain object is large without deformation and collapse. The plum vase is covered with transparent glaze, pure and delicate, It is bright and thorough. The bottle body is painted with blue and white clouds, overlapping and hovering. It has a vivid charm. Against the background of blue and white auspicious clouds, five living dragons painted with underglaze red appear. The dragon's head is staring, with hair, long kisses and sharp teeth. The Dragon's body is vigorous and circling, with solid and dense feathers and phosphorus, sharp fingers and claws, and full of motion. The bottom of the bottle is painted with blue and white sea patterns, showing the scene of the black dragon haunting the turbulent sea, flying around, dignified and royal. The combination of blue and white and underglaze red not only makes the process more complicated, but also makes it more difficult to burn. However, it is not always a reward. It only seeks excellent decorative effects. "Sparing no cost" can be described as the purpose of Qianlong's porcelain making. It is fully displayed in front of people on this porcelain, worthy of the reputation of "pushing dry kiln for beautiful porcelain in previous dynasties".

 

乾隆以后,中国瓷器烧造最辉煌的时代渐渐远去了。嘉庆初期,乾隆以太上皇身份临朝,一切与乾隆时期无二,到乾隆死去,进入清中期,嘉庆皇帝崇尚节俭,官窑生产也不断缩减,青花釉里红的烧造数量开始减少,工艺开始下降,胎体渐粗,釉汁渐稀,釉里红色变暗。和世上的一切有着共同的命运,釉里红,这种曾经辉煌一时的瓷器品种不可避免地衰落了。

After Qianlong, the most glorious era of Chinese porcelain firing was gradually gone. In the early days of Jiaqing, Emperor Qianlong was the emperor on the ether. Everything was the same as that in the Qianlong period. When Qianlong died and entered the middle of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Jiaqing advocated frugality, and the production of official kilns continued to shrink. The number of firing blue and white underglaze red began to decrease, the process began to decline, the carcass became thicker, the glaze juice became thinner, and the underglaze red became darker. Having a common destiny with everything in the world, underglaze red, a once brilliant porcelain variety, inevitably declined.

 

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